FSM syntax, an evaluation

As described in FSMs are needed Finit State Machines are great and needed – even tough no (main) programming language has syntax support for it. But there are other (computer) language that (more-or-less) support the corresponding State pattern.
By example plantUML –very populair by mature developers– has a syntax to draw them.

What can we learn from them? That is the topic of this post, before we define the Castle syntax.

Goal: Short & Maintainable

Before we can define the (Castle) syntax for FSMs, we should know where we are aiming for. We need to support “all” kinds of FSM, as required by [Castle has generic FSM synt... (U_FSM_Syntax)] and refined by [Castle supports NFA_ and UM... (U_FSM_extensions)]; e.g. the syntax should allow non-determinism. And like all parts of Castle: maintainability and preventing mistakes is important.
For a FSM this means short: avoid boilerplate-code.

The FSM`s mathematical model is simple: a set of states (‘\(S\)’), the input events (‘\(E\)’), the transaction rules (‘\(R\)’), a start-state (‘\(S0\)’), and the final-states – which are not needed for a SW-FSM 1. Usually, a set of actions (‘\(A\)’) is required too. Where this set is implicitly defined: the actions are listed inside the rules.
Each rule is relation \(R := S * E -> S, A\); this “table” is typically the biggest part of an FSM.

So, to make a FSM-code compact, we have to focus on the rules. It’s tempting to regard this rule-set as a matrix: with (‘\(S\)’) and (‘\(E\)’) on the axes and the next-states 2 (and actions) inside each cell. Nevertheless this matrix is huge and probably sparse: most cells are empty, as the combination does not occur.
We can describe such a sparse-matrix by listing the cell-value with the coordinates. This boils-down to listing the rules, one by one .The disadvantage of this that many states and/or events are listed many times. As we will see below, some languages solve this by factor-out states and/or events.


Concurrency is not relevant

FSM’s can be huge in code but do not need a lot of computer-power. For every step –one input– one state-variable has to be updated, and the action has to be triggered. That action can be “big” (an can need concurrency), the FSM itself not. Therefore, the syntax of the FSM doesn’t need special attention to make the FSM concurent.

Languages that support the state-pattern

Some tools support FSMs, the state-pattern, or something that resembles it. We will not evaluate the tool, but focus in the “input” those tools use. And on what concept we can reuse to design the syntax/grammar that Castle will use for FSM-support.


The design-tool plantUML support the UML-FSM State diagram with a quite compact syntax. The focus however is on drawing 3. As one can add text ‘on’ the arrows and ‘in’ the states, events and actions can be specified. However, the is no specific syntax for that. By example, many add text like event / action() to annotate the transaction with events and actions. But for plantUML it us just text. The same for Moore-actions: It an convention to add them to a state, with prefixes as E: and L:.
So using this syntax directly isn’t possible. By adding a bit or (formal) grammar is easy.

PlantUML support all aspects of the UML-FSM, including super/sub-states (plantUML calles them ‘Composite state’) and concurent states. As ‘drawing’ is the main goal, support for \(\epsilon\)-transaction, all kind of actions, etc is solved as described above: by text.


Substates are drawn ‘inside’ a superstate. This is described with a nested structure; a state can have an (optional) {} block. Inside that block, the same syntax is uses as for the main FSM.

This part of syntax does not fit the goals of Castle; as it is still one piece of code; it does not make the source “shorter” 4. But more important: one would typically like to reuse “sub FSM” and specify those details later/elsewhere in the program.


A developer like to refer to other parts; by example to import other modules or name those. Not by recode them. This is not possible (relevant) in plantUML’s state diagrams. Although some do/try by separate the source into multiple files, and use the “!include preprocessing” options – a bit like good-old C textual includes. One misses namespaces and other modern features however.

SMC (State Machine Compiler) & friends

There are many versions of the “State Machine Compiler”. Most use a text-input-file to specify a FSM and ’compile’ that into programm-code first. Then the normal compiler is used to compile it “asis”.
We do not discuss the tools itself, but will examine the input-file. And (when given) the formal grammar.

Uncle Bobs’s version

Uncle Bob’s version basically uses a “table” with 4 columns: current.state, event, next.state, action; separated by whitespace. The name of the FSM, and it initial state are written-down above the tabel. This table is translated into a class with a nested-switch FSM 5; the SW-developer should create a subclass that implements actions (as methods).
As SMC will generated the essential code (which should be deterministic), the FSM needs to be deterministic; the syntax does allow (a bit of) non-determinism however. But by example epsilon- (and especially ‘instantly’) transaction are not possible.

It is possible to factor-out some current.states (but not events) by using {}-blocks –the docs speak about “convenient syntactic sugar”. Equally, one can combine several actions (function-calls) into one: surround them with braces.
This block concept can also be use to describe “abstract states”, which resembles super/sub-states. This is done by the :-modifier postfixing a state, and putting the abstract-state-name between parenthesis.
It is also possible to specify entry/leave(exit) action, again by postfixing a state with ‘<’ entry-action or/and ‘>’ exit-action.

The basic syntax is quite simple and readable; although whitespace as separator is not ideally –also as it make it a bit unclear (hard to remember) what the order is. This readability issues becomes bigger when factoring-out (and the number of columns decrease), or using state-modifiers.
This can easily be improved (for Castle), by adding a bit more grammar-sugar and have several ‘tokens’ between the columns.

The sytax of this version of SMC allows somethings that resembles hierarchically superstates; although the hierarchy is “inlined”.
For Castle, we cherish the ability to spilt the text over multiple files 6.

SMC (sourceforge) version

This version is derived from an early variant of (Uncle) Bob Martin’s (see above), according to its documentation The basic input-syntax is equally; although a lot “target-language details are added to the header (like file-names etc)– for Castle this is not relevant.

The syntax is updated. By example, to describe Moore actions the keywords Entry and Leave are used with {}-blocks surrounding the action (even for a single call). In general, those {}-blocks has become compulsory; every state has such a block., as has every action. This makes the syntax more regulair and readable for C/etc programmers.
But all those braces makes that the compact “table alike” structure for the rules is gone.

guards & parameters

A new feature is “guards”: a boolean expression-postfix on events (in square-Brackets: [<guard>]). The specified transaction will only happen when and that event happens and the guard is true. The same event without a guard will act as a kind of default/fall-through transaction.

Another feature are event-parameters (called “Transition Arguments”; as the words event and transition are not used consistently). In all examples this event-parameter is used in the guard; it’s not clear (Nore relevant) the tool can also use it elsewhere.

more changes

It support also a few notations, that do (IMHO) not fit in the FSM notion; like having a stack (that makes it a stack-machine or PDA). But it has a nice feature to generate (graphviz) diagrams; this really is convenient for the developer. Even one nowadays probably would prefer to see plantUML State diagrams, as they are more standard.

And again, for castle we like to be able to “distribute” details over multiple files.

State Chart XML (SCXML): State Machine Notation for Control Abstraction

SCXML is a (XML-based) standard “language” 7 to describe (more-or-less) an UML-FSM.
Surely, the XML-part is not applicable for Castle. Still, XML describes a tree (structure) – like the Castle text format will be converted into an AST (so, also a tree). So there we can learn (or at least try).

This format treads events as attributes of a transition. See the disadvantage of this in Remarks (general)), below.

Harel StateCharts (aka UML-FSM) are supported. Both by being able to nest states; using the power of XML: Any <state> elements may have (other) state elements as children. And by having <parallel> elements, that can contain (multiple) <state> elements – here, each of those parallel states act as a “small FSMs” that are all active when the parent state is active. This is an elegant way to describe “Orthogonal regions” (aka “Concurent states”).

Concurent sub-states

Like a regulair <state>, a <parallel> element has an ID (attribute), that act as name – showing a bit of similarity between normal states and concurent-substates. This approach can be usable for Castle.

Possible, two concurent states can also be seen in a hierarchical way. At the top level is just one state, that is active or not. And when we dive into de details, it can have substates (like normal a hierarchy); only here some states can be active concurrently. As SCXML describes it, the “upper” state (nor the rest of the FSM) does not have to know about this concurrency.
Additionally, those concurren “substates” do not exist, whe the upper state is passive …


Have to give this a tought …

When state can act a small FSM internally, we can possible define a “concurrent state class” too. That class act as state, and can have “two” (or more) FSM’s inside …

The inheritance-order/tree becomes complex however; Liskov should not be violated.

  • FSM is s subtype of state. (as a state, is only active or not).

  • The “concurrent one`` is also a subtype of state, not containing some FSMs

Or, should we not inherited, but always aggregate? Sometimes 1, sometimes more…

No Referring

Although XML has many options to refer other docs, SCXML does use none… Except for one place; the “G.1” example in the w3-specification refers to another (scxml-) file, using XInclude! Without any explaining text nor semantics. I guess the semantics is like a textual preprocessor: all text in that file should be read as if it was typed-in. That does not help (me) 8.

Some other relevant languages

There are more tools (and there input languages) that can inspire us. They do not directly define a FSM, but can be used to visualize it, or use FSMs as part of the languages.


DOT is language –introduced & used by tool Graphviz– to describe (mathematical) graphs. It’s a very flexible language: both undirected and directed “edges” between “nodes” are possible; one can describe trees “woods” and more, which can be cyclic (or not). When introduced (together with the autorouters graphviz), over 30 years ago, it hit the marked …
Suddenly we could describe & show anything … Including state-diagrams.

DOT, as a language, can’t define a FSM -even we can show the state-transitions. And nowadays one would prefer plantUML (which used graphviz) to that.
But it has learned us that state-transition (arrows, or edges in a graph) can be described in text as simple as current --> next. A syntax we will reuse in Castle.

Verum’s Dezyne

Dezyne (now open-source) is a programming language (with a set of tools) to implement (embedded) controll software. One can also create state-machines with it. So that part of the language can inspire Castle. We use this Tutorial example as reference.

In this example the behavior is described in an (mostly) “Imperative” (normal) style of programming 10, mixed with events (on keywords) and guards ([bool-expr], like above). Therefore this simple FSM is implemented in a phraseology that is very close to the nested-switch one. The outer switch is replaced by pillar of guards (The lines starting with [] can we top-levels cases); the inner switch by on “event-handler”.

Not shown in this example, but one use the reverted style (as far as I know).

In away, it also resembles the “factor the state out” style as described above in the “tables” – although de developer has to use an assign-statement to change state; unlike above where naming the new state will do 11.
Assuming one can use the “reverted” (nested-switch) style too, it is in Dezyne possible to (“in a way”) factor-out the inputs (instead of the state). None of the examples above where able to this.

For Castle, if (and only if) we enable this factor-out option (even when we do not endorse it), I would prefer to have this symmetry (as in Dezyne): one can factor-out both state and/or inputs! As shown in the example, the syntax for both switches is a differs a bit. By such a contrast in syntax, its become cleare wich “ID” is state an which one it de “input”. And thus we can allow to swap the order, and so, it becomes possible to factor-out both. #Nice

BTW, Dezyne uses both “declarative” and “imperative” statements. As we describe in Declarative programming (todo) Castle will promote this declarative style; it’s great to declare a FSM (over implement it in an imperative style). And I have no glue why Dezyne made another choice…


Ragel is also a FSM-compiler, but unlike SMC is does not need rules as input. It uses RegExps as input!
There is not a lot of documentation on the input however. But is has a interesting approach.

It looks like one can define “paths” 12 by specifying some RegExps. Regel builds a NFA by using Thompson’s construction algorithm, out of those RegExps. So, the developer doesn’t need tho specify which states nor rules are needed; only all the allowed paths (or routes).

Actions are also possible. They are “added” to the route (but do not consume input, so like a \(\epsilon\)-transition.

Remarks (general)

Based on the evaluation of these tools/languages, we can make some general remarks. Especially where relevant for the design of the syntax of Castle.

Transitions & Symmetry

Many tools use a syntax (and/or terminology) that is not inline with the (original) FSM (mathematical) model; especially for a “transition”:
(We ignore the actions for a while, here).

  • Tools like SMC and SCXML see the transition as “the arrow between 2 states” The input-event is then like a attribute of that transition.
    So we have states and transition.

  • Whereas others – like Dezyne and plantUML-- (and the theory) sees transitions as the relation between 3 parts: from state and input (event) toward the next state.
    So we have states, inputs/events and transitions (or rules).

The implication of “employing an events as attribute of a transition”, is that one can factor-out states, but nog events anymore. Wheres when using state and event as more symmetrical pair; one can factor-out either the state, or the event – as shown in e.g. the “revered” code example.

  • The (basic) UncleBob’s version of SMC uses this more symmetrical model – which leads to compact table.
    But as the whitespace formating, does not allow to change the order of state/event; only factoring-out over the 1ste is possible.


Several formats do kind-of embrace the hierarchical states, but only in an inline-notation. Which effectively cancel the effect of hierarchy. A figure that displays states “nested” inside states (as plantUML can produce) is showning hierarchy. But not the kind of hierarchy that we need/like to construct a complex FSM

To construct a hierarchical FSM, we like to:

  1. Define a “main” FSM with states in one place

  2. Consider each (or some) state of that (upper) FSM as “lower” sub-FSMs itself

  3. Add (later, and “in another file”) sub-states by adding details to only that state.

  4. Are able to add more and more details, by “redefining” a state as small FSM in itself.

Independent of those “isolated details”, it would be nice when ‘Castle’ can flaten-out the hierarchy and draw the “nested” variant. Or even beter: can display a partial flattened-out one; depending on the focus the developer has on that comment.


Inline with the general need as described in Declarative programming (todo), we can already conclude that a declarative style for FSMs is more compact then a imperative style where one (also) ahs to specify some implementation details (like: assigning the next state).

A style as used in Ragel –to specify paths, not steps–, is potential even more compact. Especially when the input are characters – which is not ge the general case.
It may be also one step to far, as in MAYA (Most Advanced Yet Acceptable).



The final-states are used by mathematics to verify/accept an input. Whereas a SW-FSM is typically used to control a system; and run forever. When a “final state” is needed in a SW-FSM, typical a “final-action” is used.


Remember, we have to support non-determinism! Each cell in the matrix can have multiple “next states” (and corresponding actions).


By example: the arrows in plantUML can have varions lengths (-> , –>, —>) to hint plantUML how to draw; this has no (functional) meaning. This is very conviant for a drawing tool, not for a programming-language.


This is not completely correct. By ‘nesting’ one has the advantages of sharing higher rules.


This is generated code, and should not be touched. Therefor the maintainability-issue does not occur; just re-renerate the class!


IMHO the goal of the hierarchy is to be able to split the “source” of the main-state/FSM and the detailed-states. Developers are used to devide functionality over modules/components – and so text-files. And practice this every time details are added.


As a practical limitation one should mention that both the standard and may examples have a voice (over IP) background. Which makes the understandability for the general case a bit hard.


When googling for scxml + xinclude one find a few hits. Like the comment/question “is it an omission” (as it was descriped in a draft), or “is it removed” from the spec (and forgotten to update the example)?
There is no clear answer, but is appears that XInclude is kind of a general XML-facility; that have to be applied first (before using scxml). Which resembles the preprocessor. So I give up 9


I was kind of hoping that one coud refer to a part in another file. Like we have a common “library” scxml-file and use (the definitions of) a few “states” in that file. Apparently not …


Notice that the style of Dezyne resembles (or “feels as”) imperative programming, but the semantics do differ!


Dezyne has no “states” (at tupe/words) – at least not in the found FSMs. Is create state by assigning value to variable; that act as stare (like in C). Probably one can use the Enum type to define (simulate) state; but still one has to assign that value to a variable.


In a FSM (diagram) there are “steps” to go from one state to another. A “path” is a sequence of such a steps.


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